Your Next COVID-19 Vaccine Can Be a Pill – Here’s How It Works
How nasal sprays or pills can keep COVID-19 at bay?
So far, ImmunityBio is the only company authorized by the FDA to enter phase 1 clinical trials with its oral COVID-19 vaccines.
For pills: The ImmunityBio vaccine uses a new method of protection compared to the injectable vaccines we currently have. This oral vaccine can target the stable inner spike protein, as well as the outer spike protein, which is more prone to mutations.
This process can activate T cells and memory B cells which can fight the SARS-CoV-2 virus.
For nasal spray: This method, currently developed by the Altimmune company, helps the body start an autoimmune response as soon as the virus enters the system, thus causing mucosal immunity right in the nostrils. The vaccine is meant to trigger antibody and T-cell immune responses inside the nasal cavity.
By comparison, the injectable vaccines (Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, Johnson & Johnson) trigger an immune response inside our body to start producing antibodies which can fight off the virus.